2. 1857 Freedom Struggle and Rajasthan

1857 Freedom Struggle and Rajasthan: The Indian sentiment and struggle for freedom from British rule is unforgettable in the history of the country. This struggle began in 1857. The War of Independence, 1857 was an important event in Indian history. Various princely states of Rajasthan made treaties with the British by 1818, and this stipulated that the mutual conflicts amongst the princely states would henceforth be resolved by the British East India Company government. However, the British used this opportunity to interfere in the internal affairs of the native states and to harm the interests of the farmers and common people. This created an environment of discontent among the people against Company rule. (1857 Freedom Struggle and Rajasthan)

1857 Freedom Struggle and Rajasthan
1857 Freedom Struggle and Rajasthan

Table of Contents


1. Company interference in internal matters of princely states

Ignoring the provisions of the treaty, the British began to interfere in the internal administration of the native states for example occupation of Jodhpur Fort in 1839, support to Dewan Zalim Singh against the Kota Maharao in the Battle of Mangrol, repeated interference in the administration of Mewar, etc. The British effectively ended the sovereignty of the princely rulers and made them dependent on the Company’s benevolence.

2. Discontent on Succession issue in the Princely States

On issues related to the adoption of heirs by issueless rulers, the Company Tried to impose their will on native rulers, under which Alwar state was divided into two parts in 1826 due to Company intervention. In 1826, the Lohagarh Fort in Bharatpur was destroyed and a council was appointed under a political agent. In 1844, Maharawal of Banswara. Laxman Singh was declared a juvenile, and Company rule was enforced. This increased discontent among the rulers against the British. (1857 Freedom Struggle and Rajasthan)

3. Sentiment of Common People.

The discontent of ordinary people against the British was at its peak The people considered the British religious propaganda, social reforms, and economic policies as a direct interference of the British in their religion and life. Looting the military cantonment of Nasirabad by Doong Ji, Jawahar Ji, and Lotu Jat became a cause of great happiness among the general public.

4. Interference in Economic Affairs of Princely States

The British began a policy of economic exploitation of the Princely States (by levying and extracting Khiraj (land tax) from the native rulers. Also, taxes were imposed in the name of maintenance of law and order in the native states. The Company established the Merwara Battalion in 1822, the Shekhawati Brigade in 1834, the Jodhpur Legion in 1835 and the Mewar Bhil Corps in 1841, and the entire cost of maintenance of these Battaliong was recovered from the concerned states. (1857 Freedom Struggle and Rajasthan)

5. Discontent among Feudals

Before the treaties of 1818, the native rulers mainly depended on their feudals vassals (Jagirdars, Samants, Thikanedars) for collection of revenue, maintenance of law and order and military support. However, after the treaties with the British, this dependence ended, and thus the feudals held the British responsible for their plight, and their discontent increased. The Thikanas of Aauwa, Kothari, and Salumber are examples of this.

IMMEDIATE REASON: 1857 Freedom Struggle and Rajasthan

The immediate reason for the Indian Revolt of 1857 was the use of cow and pig fat in the cartridges used in the new Enfield Rifles, which could be fired by the soldiers after tearing their cover open with their mouths.

1857 Freedom Struggle and Rajasthan
1857 Freedom Struggle and Rajasthan


  • The Revolt of 1857 began from Meerut on May 10, 1857. 
  • Majce Showers, Monk Masan, and Colonel Eden were the political agents in Mewar, Marwar, and Jaipur respectively. All of them worked under the then AUG (Agent to Governor-General) George Patrick Lawrence. (1857 Freedom Struggle and Rajasthan)

There were six military cantonments in Rajasthan at the time of the Revolt of 1037->

1.NasirabadAjmer15th Bengal Native Infantry
2.NeemuchGwaliorMalwa, Mewar Rajputana Regiment
3.ErinpuraPaliJodhpur Legion
4.DeoliTonkKota Contingent
5.BeawarAimerMer Regiment
6.KherwaraUdaipurBhil Regiment
1857 Freedom Struggle and Rajasthan
  • Except for the five thousand Indian soldiers, there was not a single European soldier in these military cantonments, and thus it was a matter of serious concern for the A.G.G. to control these soldiers.
  • On 19 May 1857, A.G.G. Lawrence received the news of the Revolt in Meerut at Mount Abu He instructed all the native rulers to maintain law and order in their states and to suppress the rebels with force. (1857 Freedom Struggle and Rajasthan)


  • Soldiers revolted at Nasirabad cantonment on May 28, 1857. These Indian soldiers took control of the artillery and looted the cantonment. They killed Major Slotis Wood and Newbury and marched towards Delhi. (1857 Freedom Struggle and Rajasthan)


  • Soldiers led by Mohammed Ali Baig revolted at Neemuch Cantorument on June 1, 1857 and set fire to the armory Captain Macdonald tried to defend the Neemuch Fort, but the soldiers stationed inside the Fort also rebelled.
  • The revolting soldiers looted British bungalows at Chittor, Hamirgarh, Banera and reached Shahpura. The Jagirdar of Shahpura provided supplies to the revolting soldiers, Getting the news of the revolt in Neemuch, Showers sent a platoon of Mewar to flush out the rebels, and he himself marched to Neemuch. Showers re-established control over Neemuch with the support of Kota, Bundi, and Mewar armies. (1857 Freedom Struggle and Rajasthan)


The Revolt began at Erinpura on August 24, 1857. The Jodhpur Legion rebelled under the leadership of Moti Khan, Subedar Sheetal Prasad and Tilak Ram. These soldiers marched towards Delhi, shouting Slogans like ‘Chalo Delhi, Maaro Firangi’ (march to Delhi, kill the foreigners). Auwa Thakur Kushal Singh extended support to these rebels.(1857 Freedom Struggle and Rajasthan)


  • The Revolt of Aauwa was led by Thakur Kushal Singh Champawat. The soldiers of Aauwa, Aasop, Alaniawas, Lambia, Gular, and Rudhawas Parganas defeated the joint army of Captain Heathcote and Jodhpur Maharaja Takht Singh at Bithaura (Pali) on September 8, 1857. (1857 Freedom Struggle and Rajasthan)
  • On 18 September 1857, a battle ensued between the rebels and the political agent of Jodhpur, Monk Mason at Chelawas. Mason was and his head was hung from the gate of the Aauwa Fort.
  •  Brigadier Holmes led an army to attack Aauwa in January 1858 and captured the Fort. The revolt of Aauwa is still remembered by the people in folk songs of Holi, etc.(1857 Freedom Struggle and Rajasthan)

‘Dhol Baaje-chang baaje, Bhalo Baje Bankiyon.

Agent ko maar kar, darwaaje par tankiyon.’


  • The revolt began in Kota on October 15, 1857, under the leadership of Lala Jaidayal and Mehrab Ali Khan. The most well-organized and well-controlled revolt in Rajasthan happened in Kota. The revolting soldiers beheaded Captain Burton and paraded his head around the city.(1857 Freedom Struggle and Rajasthan)
  • Kota ruler Maharao Ram Singh II was imprisoned in the Kota Fort by the rebels. 
  • Banera, Kotharia, and other places in Rajasthan were also centers of the revolt. (1857 Freedom Struggle and Rajasthan)


By June, 1858, the British had re-established their control in most princely states of Rajasthan. Tantya Tope and rebels of Kota Jaidayal and Mehrab Ali Khan were hanged. 


  • Most of the rulers of native states extended their full support to the British
  • The Revolt began before its scheduled date, and thus was unplanned. 
  • The Revolt began at only a few places.
  • The Revolt began at different times at Kota, Nasirabad, Bharatpur, Dholpur, Tonk, etc.
  • The Revolt lacked skilled and organized leadership. There was a lack of coordination among the rebels in Rajasthan and they also lacked the necessary resources.(1857 Freedom Struggle and Rajasthan)
  • The rulers of Marwar, Mewar Jaipur, etc. did not support Tantya Tope.


  • Since the native rulers of Rajasthan made attempts to suppress the Revolt, they were rewarded by the British in the form of titles, and awards.
  • The rulers were also given English education.
  • The feudal lords had also taken part in the revolt against the British, and hence the British made a policy of ending their dominance and privileges after the revolt ended.
  • English education system was expanded, so that loyal, English-educated, and experienced people could be recruited into the bureaucracy.
  • The British rapidly began to develop the means of transportation in order to further their military and trade interests.(1857 Freedom Struggle and Rajasthan)
  • Though the Revolt of 1857 failed in its objectives, it was an important beginning to the freedom struggle and a source of inspiration for future generations that helped India attain independence in 1947.(1857 Freedom Struggle and Rajasthan)


Sovereignty– the power that a country has to control its own government.

Revolt-mutiny, rebellion, opposition of authority, usually by violent means.

Suppress– to quell a revolt/opposition by use of force.

Cantonment-camp of soldiers

A.G.G-epresentative/Agent of the Governer-General


 Choose the correct option:

1. Where did the Revolt of 1857 first began in Rajasthan?
(a) Neemuch    (b) Erinpura   (c) Nasirabad    (d) Kota

Ans: (c) Nasirabad

2. where did Thakur Kushal Singh lead the revolutionaries in 1857?
(a) Beawar  (b) Aauwa  (c) Bharatpur  (d) Neemuch

Ans: (b) Aauwa

3. Which cantonment did Doong ji and Jawahar ji pillage in the revolt of 1857?
(a) Erinpura  (b) Kota  (c) Nasirabad  (d) Neemuch

Ans: (c) Nasirabad

4. Which British political agent was beheaded in Kota during the Revolt of 1857?
(a) Major Monk Mason   (b) Major Showers   (c)Colonel Eden  (d) Major Burton

Ans; (d) Major Burton

5. Which British regiment was stationed at Erinpura Cantonment?
(a) Jodhpur Legion  (b) Kota Contingent  (c) Bhil Regiment  (d) Mer Regiment

Ans: (a) Jodhpur Legion

6. Who led the revolt at Neemuch Cantonment?
(a) Moti Khan (b) Mehrab Ali Khan (c) Mohammed Ali Baig (d) Lala Jaidayal

Ans: (c) Mohammed Ali Baig

7. Which native ruler supported the British in the revolt of Aauwa?
(a) Maharaja  (b) Jodhpur Maharaja  (c) Kota Maharao  (d) Mewar Maharana

Ans: (b) Jodhpur Maharaja

8. Where did the revolt of 1857 begin in India?
(a) Nasirabad  (b) Meerut  (c) Kanpur  (d) Delhi

Ans: (b) Meerut

Fill in the blanks:

1. The Revolt of 1857 began in Rajasthan on __________.

2. The __________ regiment was stationed at Kherwara Cantonment.

Answers:(1.) 28 May 1857 (2.) Bheel

Very Short Answer Type Question:

1. Which military cantonments were present in Rajasthan during the Revolt of 1857?

Ans: There were 6 army cantonments in Rajasthan at the time of 1857 AD. They were 

Nasirabad, Neemuch, Erinpura, Deoli,  Beawar and  Kherwara.

 2. Who led the 1857 AD revolution in Kota? 

Ans: Lala Jaidayal and Mehrab Ali Khan led the 1857 AD revolution in Kota.

Short Answer Type Questions:

Question 1. What were the reasons for the revolution of 1857 AD in Rajasthan?

Answer: Reasons for the 1857 AD revolution in Rajasthan

Following were the main reasons for the 1857 AD revolution in Rajasthan-

(1)The British intervened in the internal rule of the states and they raided the sovereignty of the kings and made them dependent on their kindness.

(2)Due to the intervention of the British in matters related to adoption by the childless kings, the feeling of dissatisfaction in the kings was strengthened against the company government.

(3)Due to the propaganda policy of the British, social reforms, and economic policies in Rajasthan, the general public sentiment was at its peak against the British.

(4)The British company intervened in the economic matters of the states and implemented a policy of economic exploitation.

(5)The feudal lords considered the British responsible for their sad situation. Hence, there was anger against the British. 

(6)The immediate cause of the revolution of 1857 AD was the use of cow and pig fat in cartridges used in Enfield rifles.

Question 2. Explain the contribution of Thakur Kushal Singh of Auva to the struggle of 1857 AD?

Answer: The contribution of Thakur Kushal Singh of Auva to the struggle of 1857 AD:

(1)Thakur Kushal Singh of Auva met the rebels of Erinpura on his way to Delhi and took these soldiers with him to Auva.

(2)The revolution in Auva was led by Thakur Kushal Singh Champawat.

(3)The soldiers here under the leadership of Thakur Kushal Singh defeated the combined forces of Captain Heathcoat and Jodhpur Maharaja Takht Singh in Bithora (Pali) on 8 September 1857 AD.

(4)On September 18, 1857 AD, dead revolutionaries defeated the political agent Monkmasonof Jodhpur in the Battle of Chelawas beheaded him, and hanged him at the door of Auva fort. Which British political agent was beheaded in Kota during the Revolt of 1857. (1857 Freedom Struggle and Rajasthan)

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1857 Freedom Struggle and Rajasthan


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